Sitecore Interview Questions and Answers
A complete list of Sitecore Interview Question and Answers. The most common questions asked in any Sitecore job interview. This post is updated regularly with latest Sitecore interview Question and Answers.
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Sitecore Interview Questions and Answers
A content management system (CMS) is a computer application that supports the creation and modification of digital content using a simple interface to abstract away low-level details unless required, usually supporting multiple users working in a collaborative environment.
A web content management system (WCM or WCMS) is a CMS designed to support the management of the content of Web pages. Most popular CMSes are also WCMSes. Web content includes text and embedded graphics, photos, video, audio, and code (e.g., for applications) that displays content or interacts with the user.
Such a content management system (CMS) typically has two major components:
- A content management application (CMA) is the front-end user interface that allows a user, even with limited expertise, to add, modify and remove content from a Web site without the intervention of a webmaster.
- A content delivery application (CDA) compiles that information and updates the Web site.
Sitecore is a customer experience management company that provides web content management and multichannel marketing automation software. The company was founded in 2001.
Sitecore is built using Microsoft technologies and it is mainly used to build enterprise websites and intranet portals. It also supports deployment via Microsoft Azure.
Sitecore provides a complete, connected e-commerce WCM platform that puts the shopper at the heart of every interaction and engagement, irrespective of which e-commerce system ultimately handles their transaction. Delight your customers with a fully joined-up shopping experience.
- Powerful Framework
- Intuitive end user Interface.
- Built on cutting edge technology (Microsoft .NET Platform)
- Provides a flexibility to scale the application
- Ease of Customization
- Built in Search Engine Optimization
- Flexible workflows to manage content.
- Multi-Lingual support.
- Multi-Language sites can be created with little effort.
- Highly scalable.
- Role based security
- Provides separate E-Commerce services.
- DMS capabilities for Marketing.
- Good collection of Sitecore modules from Sitecore Market place
- Consistently updated with new features and technologies.
- Good support and service.
- Growing community.
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Sitecore does not have any free version or trial version which can be downloaded and installed. Sitecore software is available for the Sitecore certified developers for tryout purpose. If you are a Sitecore certified developer then the tool can be downloaded in Sitecore developer portal.
Check out the tutorial How To Install and Configure Sitecore? for the complete installation and configuration guide.
Sitecore has 3 main interfaces till the release of Sitecore 8.0 and here are those interfaces.
- Desktop Mode
- Content Editor Mode
- Page Editor Mode
Sitecore 8.1 and above comes up with only one interface called as Sitecore Experience Platform and it consists of all the other controls like Desktop Mode, Content Editor etc.
When you login to Sitecore the first screen you see is Sitecore Experience Platform. It's a launchpad screen which consists of everything you require.
Some of the Items you find in Experience Platform are listed below.
- Experience Analytics
- Expereince Profile
- Content Editor
- Experience Editor
- Control Panel
- Media Library
- Desktop Mode
- App Center
The Content Editor is designed for more experienced content authors who feel comfortable working with a computer, Microsoft Word and familiar with Sitecore functionality to add, edit or remove content of website using rich set of features.
Content Editor Interface has less feature options compare to Desktop interface but have more feature options compare to Page Editor Interface.
Content authors are generally focused on the quality and accuracy of the material displayed on the Website and not on the design, style, and layout of the site. For this reason, most content authors prefer to work in such interface that is designed to meet their needs and not those of the developers and designers who create the Web sites.With this mind, Sitecore CMS allows content authors to edit and create items directly on theWeb page with the Page Editor.The Page Editor is the simplest of the editing tools that Sitecore contains. It is designed for
As the name indicates Core Database is the backbone of the Sitecore application and it is used for multiple purposes.
Core database contains all Sitecore settings.
It contains the definition of Desktop Mode, Content Editor, Page Editor etc.
The core database contains data needed by the Content Manager.
All the menu items in the Ribbon is stored in the Core Database. In case if you need to create a new menu item in the ribbon you need to add the context and definition in the Core Database.
It Contains the membership related tables which drive Sitecore Authentication, Authorization, and Security.
Master Database in Sitecore is also called as Content Authoring Database. Whenever you create a new piece of content it will be stored in the Master Database.
- Master Database is used for Content Authoring.
- Master Database maintains the versioning of the contents.
- The Default Database loaded by the Content Editor is Master for content authoring purpose.
- You can Add, Edit or Delete new items in the Master Database and it is used for development of new pages and components.
he Web Database contains the live content of the website and it is also called as a published Database.
- Web Database is a subset of the Master Database.
- Whenever the content is published from Master Database it goes through the publishing task and the Workflow and the latest version of the content is copied from Master Database to Web Database.
- Web Database is Optimized for Speed, Size, and Performance.
- You could rename web database in case if you need.
- Often the Enterprise application will have multiple Databases. You could configure as many databases for SIT, UAT and Live according to your need and name it accordingly.
Content Management(CM) - CM stands for Content Management server and CM servers are meant for content editing by content authors. Hence we call CM as Content Management.
Content Delivery(CD) - CD stands for Content Delivery server and basically, it's the live website serving the pages and the contents to the visitors/users. Hence we call CD as Content Delivery.
Publishing Interface(PI) - PI stands for Publishing Instance server, PI server is responsible for your publishing operations. We can publish content from CM to CD or from Master to Web Databases through publishing interface.
In Sitecore terms, an Item is basically a record in the Database. Everything we see in the Sitecore interface is an Item. An item represents a piece of information like rendering, layout, media file, etc.
Every Item consists of unique GUID, name and Path. An item has a template which defines the structure of an item.
- Data templates
- Parameter Templates
- Datasource templates
Sitecore basically uses data templates to define the structure of an item. Data templates are the schema for Sitecore content. Templates are similar to tables in the SQL world. Templates consists of fields which represent the individual elements of the item. The fields holds the data type such as Text, Image, Numeric, Droplist, Droplink etc.
All data templates are created using the Template Manager (or Sitecore Rocks). Data templates can inherit from other data templates and can be assigned Presentation Details and insert options.
Data Template Creation
Parameter templates are used to define parameters of a content component, making is easier for a content author to update settings.
When a new content component is added to a page, it may leverage a datasource. The datasource template defines the allowed content type for that particular content component.
Publishing is a process which will help you to copy updated items from master database to web database.
Content Authors will add/edit the content in page editor or through sitecore content editor in the CM server which is called as content management server. We store all the contents in the Master Database.
In order to move these edited contents to live we use publish interface and publish the contents to live.
- Smart Publish
- Incremental Publish
As the name indicates Republish will publish all the items selected whether it is changed or not. Mostly Republish is used when the site is published for the first time and it is the most time-consuming method as it publishes all the items blindly.
Smart Publish is one of the best feature available in Sitecore. It works by comparing each item in master database with the item in web database and publishes whichever is changed.
Sitecore maintains revision number for each of the item getting changed during the editing process. By comparing the revision number with web DB, Sitecore will create a list of updated items and it publishes only those items which are changed.
Smart publish is faster then republish and most of the Sitecore authors use smart publish.
Every time the content is changed, Sitecore adds it to the publishing queue. When we select the incremental publish Sitecore will publish only these items which are added to publishing queue.
The contents added/edited programmatically as well as in content editor is will be added to publishing queue.
Incremental publish are fastest compared to Republish and Smart publish as only the edited contents gets published.
Content authors can add a new version of content for every item in the Sitecore through Content editor or experience editor. We can add as many versions as we need in Sitecore.
The content author can rollback to any previous versions easily by selecting it and making it as an active version by publishing it to live.
Two types of versions:
Numbered versions – versions of an item in the same language.
For example, you can add a second version of your products page that you can use during a special promotion. You can also add a new version of an image and change the new version to fit the promotion and then change it back to the original version after the promotion.
Language versions – versions of an item in a different language.
For example, for an item in Danish, you can add an English version of the same item. In this case, you should also add additional versions of the images of the item, if you want to display the alternative text in both languages.
1) Preview Mode
2) Page Editor Mode
3) Normal Mode
Media Library is a digital folder in Sitecore where all the media items are stored.You can manage all your media items from the Media Library, such as images that you want to embed in a webpage or make available for download by visitors. The Media Library contains all you media items, such as images, documents, videos, and audio files.
In the Media Library you can:
- Keep all your media files in one place and organize them in a folder structure similar to the content tree.
- Navigate the content tree or use Sitecore’s search functionality to quickly find media items.
- Upload media files to the Media Library. You can use the upload buttons to browse your computer for images or simply use the Drag & Drop dialog box to add media files.
- Make every media content item and media file versionable.
Standard values were first introduced in Sitecore 5.3 to overcome some of the issues experienced with the predecessors of standard values – “Masters”. In Sitecore 6 masters were completely removed and the concept of standard values took over.
Standard values are a way of having a default or fallback values for fields in Sitecore, meaning that when items are created, you can specify a field value that should be used by default. This does not only account for custom fields you build but also standard fields in Sitecore such as presentations and insert options. This means that you can specify a value of the standard values, and when you create a new item which inherits from this template, it will by default use the values specified on the standard values.
When a user creates an item based on a data template, if the standard value for any field in that data template can contain the tokens which Sitecore replaces token with the corresponding value of that item.
if we have specified $name token at “Title” field in standard value, then Sitecore will replace “Title” field with item name that you provided while creating the item.
- $name: The name for the new item entered by the user
- $id: The ID of the new item
- $parentid: The ID of the parent of the new item
- $parentname: The name of the parent of the new item
- $date: The system date in yyyyMMdd format
- $time: The system time in HHmmss format
- $now: The system date and time in yyyyMMddTHHmmss format
You can disable the analytics in Sitecore by changing few things in Configurations.
Step 1: Disable analytics:
Go to /App_Config/Include/Sitecore.Analytics.config and set Analytics.Enabled to false:
<setting name="Analytics.Enabled" value="false" />
Step 2: Comment out analytics related connection strings:
Go to /App_Config/ConnectionStrings.config and comment out, or remove, the following connection strings:
<add name="analytics" connectionString="mongodb://localhost/analytics" />
<add name="tracking.live" connectionString="mongodb://localhost/tracking_live" />
<add name="tracking.history" connectionString="mongodb://localhost/tracking_history" />
<add name="tracking.contact" connectionString="mongodb://localhost/tracking_contact" />
<add name="reporting" connectionString="user id=user;password=password;Data Source=(server);Database=Sitecore_Analytics" />
In Sitecore, data templates define data types. Data templates can contain any number of sections, where each section visually groups some number of fields. The Sitecore standard template defines a base template for most other data templates. The /sitecore/templates/System/Templates/Standard template item defines the standard template.
In order to enable the Standard field for any Sitecore item, in the ribbon menu and navigate to View and then check the standard fields checkbox as shown below.
Sortorder field under Appearance section contains item sort value. Decrease sort value to move up and increase sort value to move down item in tree.
Sortorder field is a standard field it appears in the Appearnce Section.